The journey began during the '60s when I started to collect all the Jazz LPs that I could possibly afford, or get my hands on. Most of these purchases took place during my college years('65-'69) while attending U.C.L.A. in West Los Angeles, not too far from where I grew-up. I guess that I bought so many LPs that I don't know if I really ever fully digested enough of them. Of course, when one finally becomes moved by the body of work of John Coltrane, you are then entering the wondrous world of pianist, McCoy Tyner as well. And so, I began buying his recordings as a leader. Among the first of those purchases was his 1963 ¡Impulse! release, "REACHING FOURTH." From the first time I heard his interpretation of "Have You Met Miss Jones?", which closes the recording, I was drawn to everything about it. As I look back, it is remarkable to me that this track is only 3:48 in length. By today's standards, that is incredibly short. In the age of the CD, where long tracks are the norm and not the exception, a track length that short might make a fan believe that the group was more concerned with trying to get on the radio and sell CDs rather than to "stretch-out" and explore the harmonic and rhythmic possibilities which lie within any tune. On the other hand, it is often forgotten that Coltrane's classic tune, "Giant Steps" is only 4:47. The point that I'm trying to make here is that a performance can still have tremendous content while being concise. McCoy's performance is also marked by the stellar brushwork of the great, great Roy Haynes. If you look closely at the photo I've presented here from the recording, you can see that Roy's ride cymbal is just loaded with rivets. In those days, the sustain supplied by the rivets helped all such music float. Rivets were an essential part of Elvin Jones' approach as well. For you young drummers out there, don't be so afraid about taking a ride cymbal or two, having some holes drilled in them, and having rivets installed. It's another color and, for players like me, it is a crucial element in the music I enjoy the most. McCoy's performance of this great Rodgers & Hart standard, from the Broadway musical of olden times, contributes a couple of crucial elements to my own approach to the tune. First, I decided to play the song in the same key as McCoy, that being the key of Eb major. Most players play this tune in the key of F major. Second of all, there's a little phrase that McCoy plays in bars 7-8 of [A] during the last melody statement, which becomes a key thematic element in this arrangement. I will point out just how often it appears a bit later on. Finally, McCoy's left-hand style, with the 'open' voicings and all the extensions, is heard throughout.
But perhaps the main impetus to explore this wonderful old song came from my intense desire to better understand the keyboard voicing style of Clare Fischer. I had known of Clare from his work with the harmonically unique vocal quartet the Hi-Lo's, and also from his recordings in various formats for the Pacific Jazz label during the '60s. I was especially crazy about his arrangements for the Jazz Crusaders' 1965 recording titled, "CHILE CON SOUL." I've always wondered, didn't they really mean "Chili Con Soul"? Chile is, after all, a country, right? Oh well...but, I digress. However, it was his own 1989 recording titled, "LEMBRANÇAS"(Concord Picante) which awakened my ears to other harmonic possibilities. His uniquely clustered voicings on the electric keyboards caused me to wonder if it was even remotely possible to explore such things on the guitar. Though, of course, it is not possible to realize such harmonies in total on the guitar, Clare's work has changed my approach to harmony in a huge way. We eventually became friendly, and he was kind enough to send me all the keyboard lead sheets to that recording. I began to spend hours seated in front of my Mesozoic Yamaha DX-7, with the sustain pedal in full effect, exploring his voicings one by one. It is an exploration that continues to this day. As part of it, I began, with the help of friends who had the sequencing technology, to write and record little arrangements written in Clare's harmonic style. One of those arrangements was for, you guessed it, "Have You Met Miss Jones?" I used a very simple Latin rhythm for all of my arrangements, and with the lush harmonies on top, each one sounded and felt beautiful. As the "Miss Jones" arrangement evolved, it was not enough to just state the A-A-B-A melody once, have a one chorus solo section, and then state the melody again one last time with a [TAG] ending. So, over time, I kept adding to the arrangement until it arrived at the format you now hear.
Between the years of '99-'02, I was spending a great deal of my time in Caracas, Venezuela, and saxophonist/arranger Rafael Greco became one of my dearest friends. He loved my little arrangement, and asked he could lay down all the authentic Latin percussion parts which would include: conga, bongo, timbal, campana, güiro, and maracas. He also contributed some of the wonderful 'breaks' that you hear in the arrangement. He helped me to understand that this arrangement was in 3:2 rumba clave. Of course, anything in 3:2 is much more difficult for me than if it was in 2:3. But, once we had concluded our work, we had made a wonderful little CD demo, and I thought that, at the very least, I would have a wonderful play-along track to use at clinics, and in my private teaching. Little did I know then that it was to become much more than that. It should be noted that I put together the arrangement based upon what 'felt good' to me. Though I had some basic understanding of the clave, I am hardly at a level where it is instinctual for me. However, I was counting on Rafa to advise me if had I gone astray with any of my ideas or the placement of the accents. So, when we had finally concluded our little 'demo' I just assumed that everything was fine, and that the "clave police" were not going to be chasing me down with an arrest warrant.
As this was going to be my first attempt at trying to record Salsa, New York style, live in the studio, I wanted all the elements and the participants to be there - and playing together, at the same time!! Sounds easy, right? Not so fast!!! It is never easy! The only 'easy' part was knowing that Rob Mounsey would be performing the keyboard parts and Randy Brecker would be there with his flügelhorn. Over the years, like anything else, one learns that there are politics and protocols one must observe when putting together any kind of rhythm section 'team' - all players have other players with whom they love playing as well as players that they can't stand playing with! So, I knew that I had to consult timbalero extraordinaire Marc Quiñones before going one step further with anything. I knew, of course, that he would want Bobby Allende there on conga, so that was easy. But, I knew that the arrangement was going to require bongo and campana, plus all the appropriate hand-percussion: güiro; and maracas. So, who would they want as the bongocero? Well, the answer came, and frustrated me to no end. They said, "We'd rather do it all ourselves! We'll just overdub the bongos and the hand-percussion." Not wanting to put either of them in bad humor(which is not a very good idea!), I, of course, complied with their wishes! From there, the problems began! I couldn't get bassist Rubén Rodríguez for the actual day of the recording, because he was contracted to perform at a Jazz Festival in Spain. So, the truth is that Rubén and his 5-string electric were overdubbed several weeks later. Hardly the way I envisioned things going down! Though I am re-stating this here, it should be noted that Bobby, Marc, and Rubén have played on 100s upon 100s of Salsa hits during the last two decades. They make up arguably New York City's most formidable Salsa rhythm team, and it was an honor and a thrill to have done this track with them. No matter what had to be done to complete it!
So, how were we able to record everything? In truth, the keyboard parts for this arrangement were completely notated. Every single voicing is written-out. And yes, there are many great Latin keyboard artists who probably could have read this down and added their own Salsa touches w/ montunos and guajeos, but I am not really close friends with many of them. So, there was no question in my mind that I wanted to call upon the vast talents of my dear friend, Rob Mounsey. He possesses the musicianship, the musical sensitivity, his own fascination with the harmonies of both Clare Fischer and McCoy Tyner, and the computer wizardry to bring all the various elements together. Considering the fact that the keyboard arrangement was not going to change, I thought that it would be best if Rob just replayed everything that I had sequenced long before, but with a better sound. I wanted to allow him the time and the space to craft this important part in his own way. Then, at the session, which was to take place at Avatar's Studio 'C' on November 27th, 2006, Randy, Bobby, Marc and I would simply play along live to the newly sequenced keyboard, and the bass parts which had always existed. Not exactly the ideal way to execute what I had envisioned but, I think that the results speak volumes to the fact that we got it done. As there is an educational element to these pages, and we are now well 'after the fact' - I believe that it's important to be truthful about these things so that players, younger and older, can benefit from my experiences.
Back to our story! With everything seemingly in place for the recording, I sensed that perhaps I should send Marc Quiñones a CD-R of the demo just to make certain that everything was in order. Meaning that I hoped that he would like it and that there were not any clave problems which I had missed. Well, it wasn't long before he phoned me back and respectfully told me that there were, in fact, many problems with the arrangement and the clave. I couldn't believe it! After all, Rafael Greco, a master musician when it comes to the clave and everything that is Latin music, had been present when the demo was done. Surely, if something was amiss, he would have told me, right? Marc explained that most of the problems occurred in the 8th bar of some of the sections. He said that in 3:2 clave, the 8th bar should be a '2' bar, and that I had accents which indicated that it was a '3' bar. Wow! I was so frustrated. I phoned Rafa and asked him about all this and he simply tried to explain that he had let all those details go, because he felt that the arrangement was totally "musical" and, in the end, that this was all that mattered. Of course, I would agree with that. But, when working with Marc and Bobby, this is just not acceptable. Over the years, as I have been studying Latin music, trying to catch-up, I have observed many things. Firstly, all the cultures involved in the genre: Cuba; Puerto Rico; República Dominicana; Venezuela; Colombia; and New York and Miami, they all treat the clave with respect, but differently. It seems to me that the Cubans are the most 'loose' about it. Songs in the newer Cuban music can make the transits between 3:2 to 2:3 and back again without adding or subtracting the 'extra bar' - where as, for example, Puerto Rican musicians and arrangers would never feel comfortable doing that! And so, I had to go through the painstaking process of changing almost all the 'trouble' bars in the arrangement, and Rob had to then re-play them. Ay!!! When one listens to the performance, and takes special note of how Marc effortlessly executes all the accents, it only serves to confirm the crucial importance of the clave, and how ingrained these elements are in the souls of the great Latin musicians. If you look carefully at the keyboard lead sheets, in the various bar #8's of certain sections, you can see the erasure marks from where I had to make those changes. In some cases, I actually re-wrote the bars on a new sheet, cut out those bars, and pasted them over the old bars.
If one spends the time and listens to the details of all the percussion throughout the entire performance, the impression might be one of astonishment and great respect for all the minute details that make up a great Salsa track. Let me describe for you what takes place. In the [I] sections, we have Marc on timbal(playing the mambo bell) and güiro, and Bobby on conga and campana(bongo bell). When the melodies are played during the A-A-B-A format, Marc switches to playing cáscara on the timbal(playing on the metal shells), and he also added the bongos(the campana is silent). Bobby adds maracas(the güiro is silent). For the first two solo chorus sections: the timbal returns to the mambo bell, the bongos drop out, and the campana reappears. During these choruses the maracas continue to play. But, for the 3rd chorus, as Marc moves from the mambo bell to his ride cymbal, the güiro replaces the maracas! A small detail but wonderful! During the [D] sections, the moña, the percussion is the same as during any [I] section! So, I hope that when you now listen, you can appreciate the hard work, attention to detail, and the complete understanding of the genre that Marc and Bobby bring to everything that they do!
But, the work on the arrangement wasn't done yet. Even though one of the things that I love the most about Clare Fischer's comping style over Latin rhythms is that, occasionally, he will just play 'pads' or long-notes with his Rhodes-like sound, and it's wonderful because the percussion and its rhythms are providing all the propulsion that is necessary. My dear friend, Don Grolnick often comped like this, believing that the more rhythmic the activity was coming from the the drums or the rhythm section, the less the keyboard has to play. Still, for my arrangement of this glorious old standard, I felt that 8-minutes of playing without a single montuno was just not going to feel right to anyone who knows anything about the genre. So, I felt that IF I could somehow get someone to write two montunos for the 2nd and 3rd [B] sections of each solo, this might be enough. But, whose help could I enlist? I am not well-versed enough to write such montunos in this Clare Fischer-esque voicing style. No way! And, as great a musician as Rob Mounsey might be, he too doesn't know enough about the clave to write or improvise 3:2 rumba clave montunos! So, I asked my good friend, the fantastic Venezuelan pianist, Luis Perdomo if he could help me out. I sent him the demo, and all the keyboard parts, and explained what I was hoping he could do for me. It was not long thereafter that he e-mailed two pdfs with two different montunos. I then wrote them into the arrangement, and sent it all downtown, yet again, to Rob, and he performed them beautifully. And this is what you now hear behind Chorus 2 and 3 of Randy's solo, as well as during my nylon-string guitar solo. Again, a little touch like this becomes crucial to the feeling, to the 'sabor' of arrangement. It goes without saying that I am so grateful for Luis' contributions. I don't know what I would have done without him.
If we are to take a look at the specifics of the keyboard harmony within the arrangement, the Intro, the [I] sections serve as the glue to everything. There are any number of 'tried and true' harmonic devices to employ when writing any Intro, one of the ones that I like very much is to begin the piece in an area which is one whole-step down from your target key. So, as we are playing the song in the key of Eb major, the [I] section begins in the area of Db7. Over the past many years, on the keyboard, I've been exploring the sound created by two triads, one whole-step apart and the sonorities that this can create. Here you have a Db triad(2nd inversion) on top of a Cb triad(3rd inversion) which gives you all the rich sounds(the extensions) of a Db7(sus) chord. In the 4th bar of each phrase, these sounds are punctuated by an Eb triad(2nd inversion) on top of the Db triad(3rd inversion). This, of course, adds the sonority of the b5(G-natural) to the harmonic mix. In bar 16, as we shoot into the actual melody, you see this same harmonic configuration just before we hit the root, but this time, it's a B triad on top of an A triad. It's a most interesting sonority because you expect some kind of a V7(alt.) sound to appear there, but the most important movement is in the top voice as the B-natural pulls down to the Bb in the top melody voice.
As we have arrived at the first [A] section of this traditional A-A-B-A, 32-bar song form, you could isolate just about any one voicing, sit down at your own keyboard, find a sound that resembles any old Fender Rhodes and, using your sustain pedal in a most liberal manner, any and all of these voicing should sound glorious to you. You would also want to add the root of the bass note to complete the sonority. It is a bit hard to attach a finite number to the voicings used but, let's just say that about 90% of these lush harmonies are directly derived from my Clare Fischer studies. And please, don't get me wrong, it is not that many, many other pianists don't use these voicings, of course they do. It is just that often times Clare uses them with much more time given to each one. It should also be noted that what can sound lush and wondrous on a Fender Rhodes might well not translate to the grandeur of the acoustic piano! In contrast to all the Fischer-isms, I have employed the harmonic stylings of both McCoy Tyner and Chick Corea(as he once played on Cal Tjader's classic LP, "SOUL BURST"). The changes that I used in bar 7-8 of the [A] are virtually the same as what McCoy used in his original version. If you are trying to determine just what actually comprises Clare's voicing style, well, I would have to say that you should observe how, in most cases, the interval of the 2nd(both major and minor) appears inside the voicing and usually not on the top nor on the bottom. You might want to try to just isolate the voicings used for all the various ii-Vs that appear during the tune. The sonorities of all the altered V7 chords owe everything to Clare! Finally, as another structural device, for the melody statement, I extended the last [A3] section by 2 bars, only because it just 'felt right' to me.
Each solo section is comprised of 3 solo choruses and, each one begins with some kind of a break figure or accent to 'launch' the soloist to hopefully another level. For Chorus 3 of each solo section, as I have previously noted, Marc's timbales move away from the mambo bell and to the ride cymbal which also lifts the solo. Where the keyboard is concerned, as you move through the various pages, you will see some numbers instead of the actual chord voicings. Please allow me to explain. For example on Pg. 3, in [A2], you see the number 25-32. This is an indication for Rob Mounsey to simply repeat exactly what was played during [A2] of the melody statement. With the contemporary wonders of sequencing, he only has to paste in those bars which he has already played. In theory, no listener should be paying great attention to any of this as the focus should only be on the soloist! The other reason for doing this in this manner is that, as you can see, the keyboard part already takes up some 7 pages, that's about 3 music stands in length. If I had actually written everything out as it was to be played, the arrangement would probably have been over 10 pages long. I wanted to try to avoid that if possible. In letter [B], bars 4-5 of that section, the voicing style and the rhythmic style is a direct tribute to Chick Corea and his playing on the aforementioned Cal Tjader recording. There is also a touch of Chick in the voicings I used in bar 2 of [A3] of Pg. 4. During the bars where you can see specific voicings written out, these were inserted by me to provide interest and variety for the soloists. This is done by altering the harmony as well as the rhythmic placement. Again, my goal was to try to keep the voicings within the same stylistic zone. That was really important to me.
On Pg. 4, we arrive at Chorus 2, and when this [B] section appears you will see the first of Luis Perdomo's two montuno contributions. On Pg. 5, in Chorus 3, and here you can see the 2nd of Luis' montunos. They're both just fantastic and added so much to the spirit of the arrangement. You will also notice in [A2] on that same page, the photocopy markings from my having to re-write and paste in that entire section because the last 2 bars were out of clave!!! Ay, qué fastidio!!!(What a drag!!!) To add some points of interest, harmonically speaking, for the solo sections, I changed the last two bars of each [A3]. The first 2 choruses utilized a Bmaj7(6/9) sonority, and the 3rd chorus uses an Emaj9(6/#4) sound. Between the two solos, in order to keep the arrangement moving forward, we D.C. and return for a condensed restatement of the [I] section. Here, it is now only 8-bars in length, and is used to feature Bobby Allende on conga. From what was bar 16, you take the single Coda sign and go to Pg. 2 where the 2nd solo begins.
After the 2nd solo has ended, we again D.C. to the top of the chart, but this time we play those first 4 bars with the two repeats. And again, the section is used as feature for Bobby Allende's conga. Then, as we play bars 13-14 on Pg. 1, we then jump to the Double Coda, and go to Pg. 6. The melodic fragments I used there are thematic devices taken from the classic little phrase that McCoy played in the out-head of his own version of the tune. That one little fragment serves to hold everything together for me in this arrangement. My initial idea for the [D] section of the arrangement was that it would be a full timbal solo for Marc. But, the more I thought about this, the more I felt that turning the section into a moña - which, in Latin music, could be considered as the equivalent of the horn shout chorus, or I suppose that you could just call it an instrumental horn break which might appear between vocal sections. So, with that in mind, if you look at Pg. 3 of the Guitar Lead Sheet, you can view the lines which comprise [D2] and [D3]. Because I knew that I would have my old and dear friend, bandmate, and ex-bandleader Randy Brecker present, I wanted the melodic material to represent themes from this arrangement, but also to include little mannerisms which have influenced me so greatly from Randy's playing, as well as his dear brother Michael's. Bars 1-2; 5-6; 17-18; 21-22; 25-26; and 29-30 all utilize the rhythms as played during the first bars of the main melody. The usage of various half-step melodic intervals, usually upper-neighboring tones, all come from Randy and Mike. Again, it was just so much fun to play this little moña with Randy. If I may, back to the keyboard part for a moment. In general, in the 8th bar of each portion of the [D] sections, I employ, yet again, one of those stacked triad on top of a triad voicings to jar the sense of endless vamping on a Db7(sus) sonority, even though the montuno rhythms of the keyboard have changed from those that appear during [I] sections.
From the end of the [D] section on Pg. 7, we now D.S. back to the statement of the entire A-A-B-A theme, beginning on Pg. 1. When we arrive at bar 7 of [A3] on Pg. 2, we finally take the Triple Coda to our [Tag] ending on Pg. 7. This little melodic fragment ends the arrangement by utilizing that primary bit of McCoy Tyner thematic magic. Beginning with an anticipation, the fragment appears in bar 2 of the Tag. When you couple these melodic elements with the creativity that Marc and Bobby brought to these moments from the percussive perspective, it makes for a most exciting, and very tight ending. These are the kinds of details that, no matter how clever, or well-versed in any genre, an arranger might be, you need the input of your fellow musicians. Their vast knowledge and instincts are often best!
O.K., I realize that these pages are most often frequented by guitarists and guitar enthusiasts, so, I suppose that I am obligated to say a little bit about the the guitar lead sheets and the role of that instrument within the context of this arrangement. Prior to the actual recording, I was always certain that my Yamaha APX-10N, nylon-string, would be my melodic voice for this tune. Amidst the lush keyboard sonorities and textures and very percussive nature of the rhythms, it just seemed like the nylon-string would stand out the best and function well in this context. I thought that I might be able to contribute something rhythmically to the proceeding but that proved to be most incorrect. You can see in the [I] section that I originally thought that I could 'mark' the keyboard part and play the upper triad an octave lower on the guitar, but, when engineer Malcolm Pollack and I listened back, he pointed out that all that the guitar seemed to be 'contributing' to that section was to muddy the waters. And, his perception was most correct. So, the guitar was eliminated from the [I] sections. In the end, I just decided that the guitar, in this setting, should only be a melodic voice, almost like a horn and that would be all. So, as you follow along with the lead sheet, you can see and hear that the guitar played very few chord voicings, except where it actually seemed to speak above the other instruments. Even the chord voicings that I had written for the 4th bar of each phrase of the moña section, [D], were eliminated and I only played the top note!
I also decided to divide up the melodic assignments in a fairly traditional way. During the first statement of melody, the guitar plays all the [A] sections and Randy Brecker's flügelhorn plays the [B] section. At the end of the arrangement when the melody reappears the assignments are reversed. It's a most simple way to do things but always very effective and lends some sonic variety. While I'm here, and Randy's name has come up again, it was such a great thrill to have him with me for this tune as well as for "Face Value" and "Luna y Arena." His playing was just so warm and wonderful, full of fire, swing, and some humor too. All the Latin musicians who have heard this track and then commented back to me just love Randy's playing. By the way, one of everyone's favorite moments comes as Randy plays over the last letter [B] during the 3rd chorus of his solo. In bar 8, which appears on Pg. 5, you hear him playing some very short, staccato 8th-note Bb's, then as [A3] begins you hear Bobby Allende respond to that phrase with his campana(the bongo bell as some call it). I recall how interested and excited Randy was when Marc and Bobby performed all the percussion overdubs on this track. First, Marc overdubbed the bongos, while Bobby played the campana. That was Layer #2 of the 'sabor.' Finally, they put on the maracas and the güiro, and everything came to life in full. Randy was beaming!!! That made me very happy too!!! I guess that while Randy's Dreams bandmate, trombonist Barry Rogers was blazing new trails for Fania within the Salsa of the '70s, Randy pursued a different musical direction, and didn't get to participate in much, if any, of that fantastic Latin music. So, watching Marc and Bobby work was a great revelation for him.
I also thought that it would be a great thing to offer the bass part for this arrangement as well. Rubén Rodríguez is one of my favorite musicians, and he, as much as anyone else of his generation, understands the role of his instrument, and its part in the vast history of the genre. In my small way, over the years, I've learned a great deal about how the bass functions in the context of the music, but, there are still subtleties of which I remain unschooled. And, thank goodness, in those cases, Rubén just ignores what I've written, and plays what is right. Lucky me!!! For this tune, I knew that his 5-string electric bass would be the best choice. I wanted for him to have the option of utilizing his low Db's and Eb's if the opportunity presented itself. To have that kind of richness at the bottom end was wonderful. In general, when one is playing Salsa in cut-time, the bass is almost always playing the root of the chord that is coming on beat 4 of the bar before its arrival. It's amazing how this approach can sound so very natural while never seeming to clash with the harmony of that prior bar. I can't imagine how all the great bassists ever get used to doing this, and with such a great time, feeling, and swing! Anyone could learn so much from Rubén's playing. He's a master, and one of the great, great people in music!
As is often the case, in reality, things often do not, and cannot go exactly as we might have hoped or planned, so learning how to be flexible and to adapt with the changes that are thrown in one's path is essential. For the arrangement of "Have You Met Miss Jones?" which I never ever imagined would actually ever appear on a recording of mine, the contributions of Rob Mounsey; Randy Brecker; Rubén Rodríguez; Marc Quiñones and Bobby Allende were just spectacular, and I'm so thankful that we could do this together! Though I have shared this before, the date of the recording session, November 27th, happened to be Randy's birthday. So, being the sentimental old fool that I am, I decided to conspire with his lovely wife, saxophonist Ada Rovatti to see if we could surprise him with a nice birthday cake. Of course, we succeeded, and it was a really great moment, because Randy had NO idea that I knew that it was his birthday. We all ended-up having a great time attacking that cake on a November day at Avatar. I think that a 35+ year friendship deserves a special moment like that!
I sincerely hope that everyone is having a great summer of 2008. And, it is my great wish that, those of you who are not keyboard players will take some time, print out the keyboard lead sheets and explore this kind of wonderful harmony. It is not always readily applicable to the guitar, but you'll find that there are inventive ways to circumnavigate such problems!!! Oh, and by the way, can you hear the similarities to Coltrane's "Giant Steps" harmonic movement in letter [B] of "Have You Met Miss Jones?" Well, it's right there! In this bridge you have three major key areas: Ab major; E major; and C major. Of course, in the original sheet music key of F major, these areas would be one whole-step above. In Coltrane's tune, composed many years later, you have: G major; Eb major; and B major! So, this is certainly something to think about, and it shows us all that nothing is ever really that new!
[Photos: Roy Haynes-Henry Grimes-McCoy Tyner(by Bob Ghiraldini); Clare Fischer;
Rob Mounsey; Randy Brecker(by Rusty Russell);
Rubén Rodríguez; Marc Quiñones and Bobby Allende;]